Michigan State University

Index to Michigan Geography and Geology

This keyword index to Michigan Geography and Geology is a fan-based project designed and built by Kathleen Weessies, Geosciences Librarian at Michigan State University and Danielle Westphall, Geology and Geography Double Major at Michigan State University.

In addition to key concepts, this index also lists illustrations and maps.
Comments may be directed to Kathleen Weessies.

Michigan Geography and Geology. Edited by Randall Schaetzl, Joe Darden, & Danita Brandt. Graphics and GIS by Mark Finn. New York: Pearson Custom Publishing, 2009.


A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | #


A

  • A horizon | 320, 326
  • About 12,000 years ago, the spruce forests and bogs in southern Michigan would have looked something like this [Figure] | 615
  • Absaroka megasequence | 130
  • Acadian Mountains | 52, 54
  • Acanthodians | 52
  • Acid soils | 334
  • Active factor | 317
  • Agassiz floods | 186
  • Age of the Crinoids | 56
  • Age of the Dinosaurs | 66
  • Age of the Fish | 54
  • Aggregate | 262
  • Aggregate | 51
  • Agriculture, diversity | 9
  • Airflow source regions for Michigan, by season [Figure] | 291
  • Airflow source regions | 290
  • Ajibik Quartzite | 32
  • Alberta cyclogenesis region | 291-292
  • Alberta cyclones | 292
  • Albion-Scipio field | 132, 135, 136
  • Alfisol | 326
  • Algonquin | 1
  • All the shop and store-keepers in Red Jacket village (now known as Calumet) were no doubt anxious every year for the break-up and removal of winter snow and ice [Figure] | 165
  • Alleghanian mountain belt | 62
  • Allendale delta | 178, 181
  • Alluvial fan | 153
  • Alluvium | 319
  • Alpena-Amberley Ridge | 253
  • Altithermal | 99
  • Alton Phase | 81, 82, 83
  • American Mastadon | 111
  • American Meteorological Society | 305
  • Amphibia | 106
  • Amphibians | 54, 56
  • Amygdaloid (flow top and lode) | 152, 157, 158, 162
  • Andesite | 13
  • Andromeda | 335
  • Anearobic | 26, 141
  • Anhydrite | 51, 55, 129, 132
  • Animal feeding operations (AFOs) | 218
  • Anna region, Ohio | 123
  • Annual patterns | 299-302
  • Annual production of oil and gas in Michiagn since 1925 [Figure] | 131
  • Anthracite | 62
  • Anthropogenic influences | 309
  • Anthropogenic | 121
  • Anticline | 129, 132
  • Anticyclone | 290-292
  • Antrim Shale | 128, 131, 136-137
  • Antrim-Charlevoix drumlin field (A10) | 650
  • Antrim-Charlevoix field | 264
  • Aphanitic | 13
  • Appalachian Mountains | 57, 60, 62, 63, 66, 70
  • Appendix A | 645-653
  • Appendix B | 654-672
  • Aquepts | 326
  • Aquifer | 224-235 (See also specific aquifer types)
  • Aquifer | 55, 57
  • Aquitard | 227, 241
  • Aragonite | 14
  • Archean | 17, 22, 24, 26, 27, 28, 30, 31, 33, 34, 35, 37, 106, 140, 656, 657
  • Arctic dryad | 96
  • Arctic environment | 96
  • Area of white pine, hemlock, and whit pine/hemlock forest types [Figure] | 616
  • Areas of Concern (AOCs) | 219
  • Armored shark | 53
  • Arsenic detected in drinking water wells [Figure] | 234
  • Arsenic | 234, 245
  • Artesian aquifer | 227, 235-236
  • Arthropod | 106
  • Artificial brine | 232-233
  • Aseismic region | 117
  • Ash | 99, 100
  • Aspen | 97, 98
  • Assessment by the Union of Concerned Scientists/Ecological Society of America (UCS/ESA) | 310
  • Asthenosphere | 34
  • At the Quincy mine location, the small T-shaped houses in the foreground, built during the Civil War, were still occupied by employees and their families 50-60 years later [Figure] | 165
  • Athens Subepisode | 81
  • Atlantic Mine event | 118
  • Atmosphere | 40
  • Atmospheric circulation | 288-299
  • Atmospheric refraction | 119
  • Atmospheric teleconnections and long-range forecasting [Focus Box] | 289-290
  • Atmospheric waves | 288-289
  • Au Sable River, a predominantly groundwater-fed system, flows over 320 km [Figure] | 213
  • Au Train Formation | 45
  • Au Train-Whitefish Channel (A7) | 648
  • August Creek in Kalamazoo and Calhoun Counties [Figure] | 208
  • Autotrophs | 26
  • AuTrain-Whitefish Channel | 185, 187
  • Avalonia | 52
  • Aves (birds) | 106


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B

  • B horizon | 321, 322, 326
  • Back-arc Basin |34
  • Backdunes | 281-282
  • Balsam fir | 97, 332
  • Baltic mine | 166
  • Baltica | 40, 52
  • Banded Iron Formation (BIF) | 32, 140-141, 146
  • Baraga dunes | 284
  • Baraga Group | 31, 32, 33, 34
  • Baraga Plains | 284
  • Barrier dune | 280
  • Barrier reef See Coral reefs
  • Basalt flow | 20, 35
  • Basalt | 13, 318
  • Basaltic magma | 151
  • Base flow provides a significant portion of the total flow to many rivers in Michigan [Figure] | 212
  • Base flow | 210-211, 223
  • Basement rock | 16, 31, 122
  • Bass Islands Group | 51, 52
  • Basswood | 98, 99, 337
  • Batholith | 31
  • Bayport Formation | 55, 56
  • Bays | 1
  • Beach-heather | 336
  • Bed | 17-18
  • Bedrock aquifer | 224-225, 227, 228-235, 241
  • Bedrock aquifers of Michigan [Figure] | 228
  • Bedrock geology maps | 16, 658-660
  • Beech | 99, 100, 101, 102, 334, 337
  • Beech-Sugar Maple Forest | 100, 101, 332, 337
  • Beech-sugar maple stand in northern Michigan [Figure] | 337
  • Beetle | 106
  • Benification | 146
  • Bentonite | 46
  • Berea Sandstone | 130, 131
  • Bernabo's study of four lakes | 101
  • Bilberry | 334
  • Biofouling | 203
  • Biome | 96
  • Biosphere | 40, 42, 48, 51, 52, 56, 57
  • Birch | 98, 99, 100, 101, 615
  • Bituminous | 62
  • Black ash | 97, 615
  • Black cherry | 336, 337
  • Black gum | 332
  • Black oak | 336
  • Black River Formation | 132, 137
  • Black spruce | 97, 335
  • Black walnut | 332, 337
  • Blizzard | 305
  • Blowout | 279
  • Bluebeech | 97
  • Bluestem grass | 336
  • Body wave magnitude scale | 117
  • Body waves | 116
  • Bog | 100, 334-335
  • Bois Blanc Formation | 51, 52
  • Boreal forest | 96, 334-335
  • Boreal species | 332, 335
  • Boreal spruce phase | 98
  • Bottom topography of Lake Huron [Figure] | 252
  • Boundaries | 1, 2
  • Brachiopods | 44, 48, 56
  • Breccia | 64, 65
  • Brimley Phase | 77
  • Broad, flat, outwash plain near Schoolcraft, in Kalamazoo County [Figure] | 262
  • Brooks, Thomas | 143
  • Brown-headed crowbird | 349
  • Bruce Peninsula | 51
  • Bryophyte bed | 79
  • Bryozoa | 48
  • Bulldozer effect | 257
  • Buoyancy forces | 129
  • Bur oak | 336
  • Buried bryophyte bed in the northern Lower Peninsula of Michigan [Focus Box] | 81
  • Buried bryophyte bed near Peoria, Illinois [Focus Box] |84
  • Buried forest in northern Michigan [Focus Box] | 85-86
  • Buried forset bed in east-central Wisconsin [Focus Box] | 84-85
  • Buried organic mat near Cincinnati, Ohio [Focus Box] | 79-80
  • Buried soil in central Illinois [Focus Box] | 82-83
  • Buried soils in coastal dunes [Figure] | 282
  • Burnt Bluff Group | 137
  • Burt, William Austin | 139, 142
  • By 1910, the Houghton Country Traction Company had 43km of track [Figure] | 167


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C

  • Cadillac interlobate highlands (A11) | 650
  • Calcite | 14
  • Calhoun, John | 161
  • Callixylon | 54
  • Calumet and Hecla (C&H) Conglomerate | 159, 162
  • Calumet and Hecla Mining Company | 162, 163, 168-169
  • Calumet and Hecla stamp mills used troughs or launders, like that shown on the right, to wash tailings or sands into Torch Lake [Figure] | 164
  • Calumet earthquake | 118-119
  • Cambrian | 24, 40, 41, 42, 48, 123, 130, 159, 656, 657
  • Cambrian explosion | 27, 42
  • Cambrian Fauna | 44, 48
  • Cambrian sandstones of the Munising Formation exposed along the shore of Lake Superior at Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore in the Upper Peninsula [Figure] | 44
  • Cambro-Ordivician Escarpment | 45
  • Canadian Climate Center Model (CGCM1) | 310
  • Canadian tiger swallowtail | 348
  • Carbon 14 dating | See radiocarbon dating
  • Carbonate leaching | 319
  • Carbonates | 14, 46, 48, 50, 51, 52, 55, 57, 63, 64, 130, 132, 155, 228, 229, 238, 249, 251, 252
  • Carbonifeous | 17, 57, 60, 62
  • Caribou | 110
  • Carmeuse Lime and Stone Quarry | 52
  • Cass, Lewis | 161
  • Castle Rock [Figure] | 52
  • Cedar | 99, 101, 616
  • Celestine | 51
  • Cenozoic | 17, 22, 60, 66, 174, 656, 657
  • Cenozoic Ice Age | 174
  • Central Lowlands | 249
  • Central Michigan Basin | 132
  • Central mine | 158
  • Chalcocite | 157, 159, 169, 170
  • Champion mine | 166, 170
  • Changes in friction/surface drag | 295
  • Changes in heat content | 295
  • Changes in moisture content | 295
  • Changes made to Michigan's boundaries [Figure] | 4
  • Changnon and Jones | 296, 297
  • Chapel Rock Member | 42
  • Charleston, MO earthquake | 123
  • Cheboygan bryophyte bed | 183
  • Cheboygan bryophyte bed | 96
  • Cheboygan event |119
  • Chinquapin oak | 332
  • Chippewa County Clay Plains, an important forage/hay growing area [Figure] | 319
  • Chippewa Indians | 161
  • Chocolay Group | 31-32, 33, 34
  • Classifications/nomenclature of glacial landforms and sediments [Figure] | 257
  • Clastic sediment | 62, 152, 153
  • Clayey soil | 319
  • Clean Water Act | 214, 219
  • Cliff mine | 158, 162
  • Cliff vein | 158
  • Cliffed dunes | 280
  • Cliffs Shaft Mine | 143
  • Climate | 288-311, 319-320, 332-334
  • Climate extremes | 303-304
  • Climate factor (cl) | 317
  • Climate scenarios | 309-311
  • Climate trends | 307-308
  • Climate variability/ change | 306-311
  • Climographs showing the average maximum, mean, and minimum daily temperatures, and daily temperature extremes, at four locations in Michigan [Figure] | 301
  • Clorpt model | 317
  • Closed canopy forests | 98
  • Close-up of ripple marks in the Mesnard Quartzite within the Chocolay Group [Figure] | 33
  • Club moss | 57
  • Coal | 56-57, 62, 63, 126, 145
  • Coal Age | 60, 66
  • Coastal dunes near Holland and Saugatuck (A15) | 652
  • Coastal sand dune | 275-283, 284, 285
  • Cochrane readvance | 85
  • Cockroach | 57
  • Cold, frosty morning in a swampy area of Luce County [Figure] | 320
  • Coldwater "Red Rock" layer | 132
  • Coldwater earthquake | 120
  • Coldwater shale | 230
  • Collingwood Formation | 48
  • Collingwood Shale | 128
  • Color plates | 654-672
  • Colorado cyclogensis region | 291, 292
  • Common minerals associated with native copper deposits of the Keweenaw Peninsula [Table] | 157
  • Comparison of mastodonts and mammoths from the Pleistocene of Michigan [Figure] | 109
  • Comparison of time-distance diagrams for Illinois, the Lake Michigan basin, and the eastern and northern
    Great Lakes [Figure] | 73
  • Compensating Works | 197
  • Composite stratigraphic sequence in coastal dunes at Van Buren State Park [Figure] | 282
  • Compression | 116, 121, 122, 155, 156
  • Conceptual diagram of influence of the Great Lakes on weather and precipitation, especially snowfall [Figure] | 296
  • Cone of silence | 120
  • Confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) | 218
  • Confined aquifer | 227
  • Confining material | 241
  • Confronting Climate Change in the Great Lakes Region, report | 309
  • Conglomerate | 152, 153, 158
  • Conifer species | 98, 334
  • Conifer swamps | 616
  • Conifer-Hardwood Forest | 332
  • Conservation Planning | 218
  • Contact metamorphism | 15
  • Continental air mass | 296
  • Continental climate | 319
  • Continental crust | 30
  • Continental Drift | 19
  • Continental glacier/ice sheet | 42, 48, 56, 150, 174-175
  • Continental ice sheets | 22, 254
  • Continental margin | 33, 37
  • Continental rift | 35, 151
  • Convergent margin/boundary | 19-20, 116
  • Conveyor belt effect | 257
  • Copper | 11, 35, 118, 119, 150-170
  • Copper Harbor | 153, 161
  • Copper Harbor Conglomerate | 153, 155
  • Copper Range | 160, 162
  • Copper Range company, early in the 20th century occupied much of the portage Lake shoreline, just
    west of Houghton [Figure] | 167
  • Copper Range Consolidated Mine Company | 166, 168-170
  • Coral reefs | 50, 51, 52, 55, 56
  • Cordilleran ice | 174-175
  • Coring device | 92
  • Coriolis Effect | 288
  • Counties | 2
  • Cracking | 128
  • Cretacious | 17, 66, 123, 656
  • Crinoid | 48, 56
  • Crisp Point | 284
  • Cross section of a kimberlite pipe and its overlaying, disturbed strata [Figure] | 65
  • Cross-cutting relations | 17, 24, 28, 63, 175, 177
  • Cross-section of the Earth's interior, showing a plume consisting of hot rising mantle anchored at the
    core-mantle boundary [Figure] | 152
  • Cross-sections showing evolution of the Lake Superior region form the time of native copper mineralization
    to the present [Table] | 158
  • Cross-sections showing progressive development of the Midcontinent rift systerm [Figure] | 153
  • Cross-sections, showing progressive filling of the rift with lava flows and occasional interflow clastic sediments [Figure] | 154
  • Crude oil | 128
  • Cryoseismisms | 115, 119
  • Cryptoexplsion structures | 64, 65
  • Crystal Falls | 142
  • Cultural eutrophication | 217
  • Cumulative number of nonindigenous, aquatic species established in the Great Lakes [Figure] | 202
  • Cumulus | 296
  • Cyanobacteria | 26, 32, 140
  • Cyclogenesis | 291-292
  • Cyclogenesis regions and storm tracks for surface low pressure systems in the central and eastern US [Figure] | 292
  • Cyclone | 290-292


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D

  • Dark surface of soils formed under grassland vegetation in St. Joseph County [Figure] | 321
  • Dead air barrier | 274
  • Deciduous forest | 100
  • Deciduous | 97, 98, 102, 317
  • Deep- ocean trench | 19
  • Deep River field | 132
  • Deerfield field | 131
  • Defiance moraine | 178, 181
  • Deglaciation stresses | 121
  • Deglaciation | 121, 122, 124, 174, 263
  • Delta | 270
  • Depth to the water table in Michigan, compiled from digital surface hydrography, topography, soils, and wetland data [Figure] | 226
  • Des Plaines | 183
  • Detriot River Group | 51, 52, 128, 241
  • Devonian | 17, 40, 41, 52-54, 63, 64, 65, 137, 656, 657
  • Diachronic time division (classification) | 70
  • Diagenetic or diagenesis | 63, 135
  • Diagram of a divergent tectonic plate boundary [Figure] | 19
  • Diagram of some of the major categories [Figure] | 276
  • Diagram of the three different types of convergent tectonic plate boundaries [ Figure] | 20
  • Diagram of wells in unconfined and confined aquifers [Figure] | 227
  • Diagram showing how organic materials are "cooked" into hydrocarbons [Figure] | 128
  • Diagram showing the main way that iron-bearing rocks become enriched in iron minerals via weathering and leaching [Figure] | 144
  • Diagrams depicting the succession of events that formed the Archean rocks exposed in the western Upper Peninsula [Figure] | 31
  • Diagrams depicting the succession of events that formed the Paleoproterozoic rocks exposed in the western Upper Peninsula [Figure] | 31
  • Diamond drilling | 143, 144, 145
  • Diamond pipes | 65
  • Diatom | 128
  • Diatreme breccias | 65
  • Differences in aquifer index values between the 0-6 m and 6-12 m depth increments [Figure] | 243
  • Digital elevation model of the northwest edge of Lake Michigan, showing the Au Train-Whitefish channel descending from onshore to offshore and connecting with the submerged Whitefish fan [Figure] | 186
  • Dike swarm | 35
  • Dike | 35
  • Dinosaurs | 57, 61, 66
  • Diorite | 13
  • Dip needle | 143, 144
  • Discharge | 210
  • Discontinuity | 120
  • Distribution of freshwater, saline water and brine in the Marshall sandstone aquifer [Figure] | 232
  • Distribution of inland lakes in Michigan, by county [Figure] | 207
  • Distribution of public water supply systems in Michigan [Figure] | 224
  • Distribution of Silurian bedrock in the Michigan Basin, and the location of the Niagara escarpment [Figure] | 50
  • Diurnal patterns | 302-303
  • Divergent margin/boundary | 19-20, 116
  • Diversion | 197, 199
  • Doline | 238
  • Dolomite | 32, 46, 63, 318
  • Dolomitization | 132, 135
  • Dolostone | 14, 45, 46, 50, 51, 225, 238, 241
  • Don Formation | 72
  • Door Peninsula | 50
  • Dow Chemical Company | 233
  • Dow, Herbert | 233
  • Dragonfly | 57
  • Drainage See Watershed
  • Drainage ditch on the Saginaw lake plain [Figure] | 322
  • Drainage divide | 210
  • Drainage reversal | 268
  • Drainage reversals in Michigan [Figure] | 268
  • Dramatic representation of the flow pattern within the retreating lobes of the Late Wisconsin ice sheet [Figure] | 256
  • Drawing of a Scott's moose in an open conifer forest [Figure] | 111
  • Drawings of the extinct Giant Beaver [Figure] | 110
  • Drift plain | 264
  • Drought of 1988 | 306, 307
  • Drought | 305-306
  • Drumlin | 264
  • Drumlins typical of the Antrim-Charlevoix drumlin field in the northwestern Lower Peninsula [Figure] | 265
  • Drummond Island | 51
  • Duck | 107
  • Dundee Formation | 52, 63, 130, 131, 132, 136
  • During the 19th and 20th century plunder of Michigan's
  • Dynamic ice margin | 70


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E

  • Eagle Harbor | 153
  • Early Lake Algonquin | 182, 183
  • Early Lake Erie | 181
  • Early Lake Saginaw | 178, 180
  • Earth System changes, in terms of sea level and climate [Figure] | 41
  • Earthquakes | 115-124
  • Earth's largest lakes [Table] | 193
  • East African rift | 35
  • East Saginaw Salt Manufacturing Company | 232
  • Eastern Deciduous Forest | 330, 332
  • Ecotone dynamics: The last 2,000 years of vegetation change [Focus Box] | 101-
  • Ecotone | 100
  • Elevation of the bedrock surface in Michigan, with detail on the elevations for a portion of southeastern Michigan [Figure] | 251
  • Elgin Subepisode | 77, 79
  • Elk Lake | 206
  • Elm | 98, 99, 100
  • Empire Mine | 147
  • End moraine | 256-257, 258, 261, 266
  • Englacial drift | 256
  • Entisol | 318, 322-324, 326
  • Entry | Page number
  • Eolian landform/deposit | 276, 281, 283
  • Eolian sand | 319
  • Eon | 17
  • Eosphaera spiralis | 140
  • Epicenter | 115
  • Episode | 72
  • Epoch | 17
  • Equation of Hydrologic Balance | 195-196
  • Era | 17
  • Erie basin | 77, 79, 86
  • Erie Canal | 617
  • Erie lobe See Huron/Erie lobe
  • Erosional landscape on shale bedrock in semiarid American west [Figure] | 61
  • Erratic boulders | 71
  • Esker | 264-266
  • Estimated drawdown in bedrock aquifers 152.4 m away from a well [Figure] | 231
  • Estimated yield of groundwater from wells developed in glacial aquifers of Michigan [Figure] | 244
  • Eukaryotic | 27
  • Eurasian crop weed | 101
  • Euro-American influence | 101, 615-616
  • Europeans | 616
  • Eutrophic(ation) | 200-201, 216-217
  • Evaporite karst | 241
  • Evaporite | 14, 32, 51, 52, 55, 61, 129, 130, 132, 241, 251
  • Evapotranspiration (ET) | 332
  • Evidence for cooling and climatic conditions in Southern Ohio [Focus Box] | 77-78
  • Examples of groundwater conditions leading to artesian aquifers, wells and flowing wells [Figure] | 235
  • Examples of some well-formed sinkholes in the northeastern Lower Peninsula [Figure] | 240
  • Examples of two common types of glacigenic sediments [Figure] | 254
  • Existing diversions into and out of the Great Lakes Basin [Table] | 198
  • Expansive boreal stand on a very poorly drained site in Crawford County [Figure] | 335
  • Explosions | 119-120
  • Extant genera | 106
  • Extension | 116
  • Extent of drift sheets in the eastern part of the mid-continent of North America [Figure] | 72
  • Extrusive | 12, 13


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F

  • Family Elephantidae | 107
  • Family Mammutidae | 107
  • Farmdale Geosol | 82
  • Farmdale Phase | 77, 79, 82, 83
  • Farmdalian Substage | 70
  • Farthest extent of Late Wisconsin ice advance, which occured about 23,000 years ago in Illinois and Ohio, but later at other points along the ice margin [Figure] | 175
  • Fault and gravity high map of southern Michigan, northeastern Indiana, and northwestern Ohio [Figure] | 122
  • Fault-bound basin | 65
  • Fault-motion | 115
  • Fauna | 106-113
  • Felsic | 13
  • Fenestral dolomite, Dundee Limestone, Fork Field, Mecosta County, MI [Figure] | 63
  • Field of young celery plants on a Histosol soil in Barry County [Figure] | 327
  • Fish of the Devonian Period [Figure] | 53
  • Fish | 107
  • Fisherman's Island State Park | 53
  • Fitzgerald Park | 56
  • Flint moraine | 178
  • Float copper | 160, 161
  • Floodplain | 208
  • Floristic tension zone in Michigan [Figure] | 333
  • Floristic Tension Zone | 332-333
  • Flowing artesian well | 235-237
  • Fold and thrust belt | 34
  • Foredune | 275-277
  • Foredune ridge | 275-276
  • Foreland basin | 34
  • Forest ecosystems | 351-353
  • Forest ecotone | 98
  • Forest soil (Alfisol), exposed in a ditch in Isabella County [Figure] | 321
  • Forest soil | 320
  • Forest tension zone | 100, 101
  • Forest | 330, 614-643
  • Formation | 17-18, 32
  • Fort Mackinac | 2
  • Fort Wayne moraine | 177
  • Fossil assemblage | 91
  • Fossil assemblage | 91
  • Fossil lemmings | 110
  • Fossil pollen record | 102
  • Fossiliferous lake deposit from the last interglacial [Focus Box] | 73-74
  • Franklin mine | 162
  • Freda Sandstone | 155
  • Front | 291
  • Future climate change | 309-311


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G

  • Gabbro | 13
  • Garden Peninsula | 50
  • Gastropod (snail) | 106
  • General Land Office (GLO) surveyors | 616
  • Generalist species | 346-347
  • Generalized diagram showing the distinctions between, and characteristics of, unconfined versus confined aquifers [Figure] | 227
  • Geologic basement See Basement rock
  • Geologic map of the northern Great Lakes region [Figure] | 25
  • Geologic time scale | 17, 656-657
  • Geology of Michigan, title | 280
  • Geology of the exposed portion of the 1.1 billion year old Midcontinent rift system in the Lake Superior region [Figure] | 151
  • Geology of the exposed Precambrian rocks in the western Upper Peninsula of Michigan and northern Wisconsin | 29
  • Geology of the Keewenaw Peninsula, showing some place names used in the text [Figure] | 152
  • Geosphere | 40, 48, 57
  • Giant beaver | 110-111
  • Giant field | 132
  • Glacial aquifer | 224, 227, 241-245
  • Glacial drift/deposits/sediments | 60, 65, 69, 70-71, 128, 130, 143, 241-243, 245, 249, 254-256, 266-267, 274, 317, 319, 334, 615
  • Glacial Grand River | 178, 181, 182
  • Glacial Lake Algonquin | 263-264, 284
  • Glacial Lake Chicago (Glenwood, Calumet, and Toleston phases) | 178, 181, 182-183, 263, 268
  • Glacial Lake Duluth | 160
  • Glacial Lake Maumee | 177-178, 180, 182
  • Glacial Lake Saginaw | 263
  • Glacial unloading affects crustal stress and causes surface uplift [Figure] | 122
  • Glacier (Glaciation) | 31, 42, 69-86, 160
  • Global Climate Models (GCMs) | 309, 310
  • Global paleogeography during the Paleozoic Era [Figure] | 43
  • Global temperature anomalies from 1850-2005 [Figure] | 306
  • Global warming | 307
  • Gneiss | 15, 28, 30
  • Goethite | 140
  • Gogebic Lake | 206
  • Gogebic Range or District | 142-143, 147
  • Gold | 11, 35
  • Gondwana | 48, 56, 57
  • Goodrich Quartzite | 33
  • Graben | 151, 155
  • Grain size | 14
  • Grand Rapids event | 120
  • Grand River Formation | 57
  • Grand River | 206, 268
  • Grand Sable Banks, near Grand Marais, in the Upper Peninsula [Figure] | 250
  • Grand Sable dune field | 276, 278
  • Granite | 13, 28, 31, 318
  • Granitoid | 31
  • Grassland soil | 320
  • Gravimeters | 132
  • Graycalm soil | 324
  • Grayling Fingers (A12) | 651
  • Grayling soil | 324
  • Great Boreal Forest | 330
  • Great Depression | 169
  • Great Lakes Basin program for Soil Erosion and Sediment Control | 218
  • Great Lakes hydrologic system [Figure] | 196
  • Great Lakes ice cover [Focus Box] | 200
  • Great Lakes Regional Assessment (GLRA) | 309, 310-311
  • Great Lakes State, nickname| 1, 206
  • Great Lakes system profile [Figure] | 193
  • Great Lakes Tectonic Zone (GLTZ) | 28, 31, 32, 33, 34, 37
  • Great Lakes Tectonic Zone | 27
  • Great Lakes watershed, showing the watershed for each lake as well as the counties within the basin both in the US and Canada [Figure] | 192
  • Great Lakes | 1
  • Great Lakes | 174-187, 191-203, 295-298
  • Great Lakes-St. Lawrence drainage basin | 267
  • Greenhouse gases | 309, 310
  • Greenstone flow | 152
  • Greenstone, state mineral | 15
  • Greenwood Phase | 77
  • Grenville Front | 122
  • Ground moraine | 264
  • Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project | 230, 241
  • Groundwater yields from bedrock aquifers in Michigan [Figure] | 230
  • Groundwater | 64, 144, 210-211, 213, 220, 223-246
  • Group | 17-18, 31, 32
  • Grypania spiralis | 27
  • Guildwood Phase | 77
  • Gypsum | 32, 51, 55, 61, 238, 241, 249


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H

  • Habitat | 346-347
  • Hadean | 24, 26
  • Hail | 304
  • Halite | 51, 52, 132, 238
  • Hardwood forest | 616
  • Hardwood swamp | 100, 338
  • Head of outwash | 261, 268
  • Heads of outwash [Figure] | 260
  • Heat accumulation | 332
  • Heavy clay soil | 319
  • Hematite| 140, 141, 142, 143
  • Hemisphere temperature gradient | 288
  • Hemlock | 99, 100, 101, 102, 334, 616
  • Hemlock-dominated forest | 100
  • Henslow's sparrow | 350
  • Herbert Dow and Dow Chemical [Focus Box] | 233
  • Heterotrophic | 26
  • Hickory species | 332
  • Hickory | 98, 99
  • High perched dune | 276-279, 282
  • High Plains | 319, 326
  • High pressure system | 291
  • Historical variations in snowfall at Chatham and Bay City [Figure] | 309
  • Histosol | 319, 322-324, 326-327, 336
  • Holocene | 96, 98-102,184, 615
  • Homestead Act | 617
  • Homo sapiens | 111
  • Honey elfin | 348
  • Horizon (soil) | 315
  • Hornbeam | 98
  • Horsetails | 57, 58
  • Houghton dune field | 284
  • Houghton Lake | 206
  • Houghton, Douglass [Figure] | 11
  • Houghton, Douglass | 11, 139, 161
  • Houghton-Higgins lake flats (A13) | 651
  • Hudson Episode | 86
  • Hulbert, Edwin | 162
  • Human interactions with coastal dunes [Focus Box] | 280-281
  • Humid continental soil | 319
  • Hummocky topography | 223, 256, 258, 270
  • Humus | 320
  • Huron basin | 77, 79, 86
  • Huron mine | 162
  • Huron Mountains (A5) | 647
  • Huron River water gap at Ann Arbor [Figure] | 269
  • Huron/Erie lobe | 175, 177-178, 180, 249, 254, 258, 263
  • Hydraulic head | 236
  • Hydric site | 338
  • Hydrocarbon resources | 126-137, 155
  • Hydrologic cycle depicts the constant movement of water on, above, and below the Earth's surface [Figure] |209
  • Hydrologic cycle | 209-210, 217, 220
  • Hydrologic flow | 63
  • Hydroshpere | 40
  • Hydrothermal | 63
  • Hypocenter | 115
  • Hypsithermal | 99


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I

  • Iapetus Ocean | 40, 52, 123
  • Ice Age | 22, 60, 66, 615
  • Ice cover changes at two different Great Lakes' locations [Figure] | 308
  • Ice quake See Cryoseisms
  • Ice-contact outwash | 261
  • Ice-marginal landforms | 256-261, 267
  • Idealized geological cross-sections of four types of oil and gas traps that may be found in the Michigan Basin [Figure] | 129
  • Idealized structure of a midlatitude cyclone [Figure] | 292
  • Igneous intrusion | 20
  • Igneous rock | 12, 20, 24, 65
  • Illinois and Ontario chronostratigraphic classifications [Table] | 69
  • Illinois glaciation | 70-71, 86
  • Illinois River | 183
  • Image and range (2000) of the eastern massasauga rattlesnake in Michigan [Table] | 356
  • Image and range (2001) of the Karner blue butterfly in Michigan [Figure] | 351
  • Image and range (2007) of the piping plover in Michigan [Table] | 357
  • Image and range (2007) of the red-shouldered hawk in Michigan [Figure] | 353
  • Image of the Manistee River showing its current floodplain and three terraces [Figure] | 267
  • Images of the Grand Sable Dune Field, Alger County, Michigan [Figure] | 277
  • Images of typical glacial lake plains in Michigan [Figure] | 263
  • In the 1920s, a miner standing on rudimentary scaffolding runs a one-man drilling machine powered by compressed air [Figure] | 163
  • In the 19th and early 20th centuriesm Calumet & Hecla built rows of identical company houses for workers to rent [Figure] | 171
  • Inceptisol | 325-326
  • Incisor teeth | 110
  • Inhomogeneities | 306
  • Inland sea | 40, 42
  • Inner and Outer Port Huron moraines | 261, 262
  • Insect pollinaed plants | 92
  • Insect | 106
  • Insect/pathogen outbreak | 100
  • Insect-pollinated plants | 92
  • Insolation | 296
  • Intensity (earthquake) | 116
  • Interglacial | 82
  • Interior dunes in Michigan [Figure] | 283
  • Interior sand dune | 283-284, 285
  • Interlobate moraine | 258
  • Interlobate Uplands | 249, 662
  • Interlobate zone | 254, 258
  • International boundary as it currently exists along Pigeon Point and the St. Mary's River [Figure] | 5
  • International Joint Commission (IJC) | 197
  • International Lake Superior Board of Control | 197
  • International Seismological Center | 119
  • International Stratigraphic Commission (ISC) | 17
  • Interpolated aquifer index values for glacial deposits used for groundwater supplies [Figure] | 242
  • Interstadials | 69
  • Intracratonic basin | 50
  • Intraplate stresses | 121-122
  • Intrusive or Intrusion | 12, 13, 31, 123, 143
  • Inundation | 96
  • Invasive species | 218-219
  • Invertebrates | 53, 57, 106
  • Irish Hills (A17) | 653
  • Irish Hills | 251
  • Iron formations | 140, 142, 143, 144
  • Iron mining | 139-147
  • Iron Mountain | 142
  • Iron ore (taconite) pellets [Figure] | 146
  • Iron ore | 139-147
  • Iron range | 141
  • Iron River | 142
  • Iron | 11, 35
  • Ironwood | 97, 98, 99
  • Irving, Roland | 144
  • Islands | 2
  • Isle Royale (A1) | 645
  • Isle Royale | 160, 161
  • Isopoll | 93, 99
  • Isopolls | 93
  • Isoseismals for the 1947 Coldwater earthquake event [Figure] | 120
  • Isoseismals for the 1994 Eaton Rapids (Lansing) event [Figure] | 121
  • Isoseismals | 116, 120, 121
  • Isostatic rebound [Focus Box] | 180-181
  • Isostatic rebound | 195
  • Isostatic uplift | 181-182


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J

  • Jack pine barren | 348
  • Jack pine | 98, 332, 334, 348
  • Jacobsville Sandstone of Mesoproterozoic age is the prominent building stone in this historic building, built in 1893 as the Supply Office for the Quincy Mine [Figure] | 36
  • Jacobsville Sandstone | 155-156
  • Jasper Knob | 32
  • Jawless ostracoderms | 53
  • Jefferson mammoth | 109
  • Jenny, Hans | 317
  • Jet stream | 288-290, 292, 299, 306
  • Juniper/cedar | 98
  • Jurassic | 60, 61, 62-63, 65, 66, 159, 656, 657
  • "Just a theory!" [Focus Box] | 21


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K

  • Kalamazoo event | 120
  • Kalamazoo moraine | 182, 261
  • Kalkaska sand | 324
  • Kalkaska sand-Michigan's state soil [Focus Box] | 324
  • Kankakee River | 175, 182
  • Karner butterfly | 350
  • Karst aquifer | 240-241
  • Karst lake | 214
  • Karst | 238-241, 245
  • Karst | 64
  • Kaskaskia megasequence | 130
  • Kettle (lake) | 213, 255, 258, 261, 262
  • Keweenaw age mid-continent rift system | 115, 122, 151-170
  • Keweenaw Fault | 118, 155
  • Keweenaw National Historic Park [Focus Box] | 160-161
  • Keweenaw National Historic Park | 150
  • Keweenaw Peninsula (A3) | 646
  • Keweenaw Peninsula | 118, 150-170, 200
  • Key locations along the Wisconsin-Michigan boundary [Figure] | 8
  • Kimberlites | 65
  • Kirkland Phase | 182, 183, 184
  • Kirtland's snake | 350
  • Kirtland's warbler | 348, 349
  • Kitchner Lake area | 98, 100, 101
  • Kona Dolomite | 27, 32


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L

  • Labrador tea | 335
  • Lac de Michigani du Illinois | 1
  • Lake Agassiz | 185, 186
  • Lake Algoma | 187
  • Lake Arkona | 180, 181
  • Lake Border moraine | 182, 183
  • Lake Border moraine | 261
  • Lake breeze | 297-298
  • Lake Chippewa | 184, 186
  • Lake Duluth | 185, 319
  • Lake effect | 295-298, 299, 303, 305
  • Lake effect snowfall | 297
  • Lake effect | 200
  • Lake Elkton | 181
  • Lake Erie [Focus Box] | 201
  • Lake Erie | 1
  • Lake Erie/Huron Basin | 177-182
  • Lake forest | 334
  • Lake Grassmere | 181
  • Lake Huron basin | 183, 184, 185, 267
  • Lake Huron | 1
  • Lake Lundy | 181
  • Lake Maumee plain | 263
  • Lake Michigan archipelago | 251
  • Lake Michigan basin | 83, 182-183, 184, 267
  • Lake Michigan lobe | 175, 182, 183, 261
  • Lake Michigan, name | 1
  • Lake mines | 164, 165
  • Lake Minong | 185, 186
  • Lake Ontonagon | 185
  • Lake Saginaw | 181
  • Lake Shore Traps | 153
  • Lake Stanley | 184, 185, 186
  • Lake Superior basin | 185, 186
  • Lake Superior mud | 142
  • Lake Superior | 1
  • Lake Warren | 181
  • Lake Wayne | 181
  • Lake Whittlesey | 181
  • Lake Ypsilanti | 180
  • Laminated sand near Waters, MI [Figure] | 13
  • Land breeze | 298
  • Land grant | 617
  • Landlooker | 617
  • Langford, Richard | 143
  • Lansing/Eaton Rapids earthquake | 120-121
  • Larch | 335
  • Largest producing oil and gas fields in Michigan, as of 1986 [Table] | 133-134
  • Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) | 175
  • Laurasia | 58
  • Laurentia | 40, 46, 52
  • Laurentide ice sheet | 174-175
  • Lava flow | 151, 152
  • Layers of Devonian limestone in Carmeuse Lime and Stone Quarry near Roger's City, MI [Figure] | 52
  • Layers of Mississipian sandstone in Jude's Quarry, Napoleon, Michigan [Figure] | 55
  • Layers of Pennsylvanian sandstone and coal in an abandoned clay pit, Fitzgerald Park, Grand Ledge, Michigan [Figure] | 57
  • Leaching | 318, 319-320
  • Leatherleaf | 335
  • Les Cheneaux islands of Lake Huron and the Munuscong islands of glacial lake Algonquin (A8) | 649
  • Leverett, Frank | 242, 266
  • Leverette and Taylor | 175
  • Lightening | 305
  • Lignite | 62
  • Like other areas of northern Wisconsin and Minnesota, much of the northern half of the Lower Penninsula and the Upper Peninsula remains largely forested today despite having been heavily logged [Figure] | 331
  • Lime Lake, in Leelanau County, is a clear, nutrient-poor oligotrophic lake [Figure] | 216
  • Limestone Mountain | 159
  • Limestone | 14, 45, 50, 52, 55, 56, 60-61, 63, 64, 65, 132, 135, 159, 225, 238, 240, 318
  • Liquefaction | 115, 123, 124
  • List of Michigan climate extremes [Table] | 303
  • Lithification | 13
  • Lithosphere | 12, 19, 34, 121
  • Little Ice Age (LIA) | 101, 102
  • Littoral zone | 263
  • Loamy soil | 100, 319, 337
  • Loamy texture | 326
  • Lobate margin | 70, 71
  • Lobe-finned fish | 54
  • Lobes and selected sublobes of the Late Wisconsin Laurentide ice sheet in the Great Lakes Region, showing the locations of major interlobate areas [Figure] | 252
  • Local magnitude | 117
  • Location of the 1.1 billion year old Midcontinent rift system of North America [Figure] | 150
  • Locations of flowing wells-both freshwater and saline-in Michigan [Figure] | 236
  • Locations of known Mastadon and Mammoth sites in Michigan, in relation to the Mason-Quimby Line [Figure] | 107
  • Locations of oil, gas and other deep wells in Michigan [Figure] | 127
  • Locations of oil-, gas-, brine-, and fresh water-producing strata within Michigan rocks [Figure] | 128
  • Locations of soluble bedrock units in Michigan [Figure] | 238
  • Locations of the major native copper deposits and generalized geologic structure of the Keweenaw Peninsula [Figure] | 155
  • Locations of water wells in bedrock aquifers in Michigan [Figure] | 229
  • Locations of wells completed into and next to Silurian Niagaran Pinnacle Reefs [Figure] | 135
  • Long-term fluctuations in lake levels of the Great Lakes [Figure] | 198
  • Longwave ridge | 289, 290
  • Longwave trough axis | 289-290
  • Longwave trough | 289
  • Longwave | 288-289, 290-291
  • Looking north at forested, transgressive dunes near Holland [Figure] | 277
  • Lost interval | 106
  • Lost Interval | 60-66
  • Love waves | 116
  • Low perched dune | 276, 279-281,283
  • Low perched dunes along the Lake Michigan shore [Figure] | 280
  • Low pressure system | 291
  • Lower Grand RIver Valley (A14) | 652


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M

  • Mackinac Breccia | 52
  • Mackinac Breccia, a collapse breccia formed by Devonian-age collapse of caves in Silurian limestones [Figure] | 64
  • Mackinac Gorge | 184
  • Mackinac Island | 2
  • Mackinac Straits | 52
  • Mackinaw interstade | 180, 181, 183
  • Mackinaw phase lake | 183
  • Mackinaw Phase | 183
  • Macrofossils | 61, 77, 92, 95
  • Macroscale feature | 288, 289
  • Macroseismic | 116, 120
  • Mafic | 13
  • Magnetite | 140, 141, 142, 143
  • Magnitude (earthquake) | 116, 117
  • Main causes of impairments for lakes, ponds and reservoirs in Michigan [Table] | 219
  • Main causes of impairments for river and streams in Michigan [Table] | 219
  • Main Lake Algonquin | 183-184, 185, 186
  • Major end moraines in Michigan, and their relationship to the principal glacial lobes [Figure] | 258
  • Major types of faults that occur in rocks [Figure] | 21
  • Major watersheds of Michigan [Figure] | 211
  • Malachite | 160
  • Mammalia | 106
  • Mammoth | 97, 107-110, 113
  • Manistee moraine | 261
  • Manitoulin Island | 51
  • Mantle convection | 34
  • Mantle plume | 151, 153
  • Map of major end moraines, heads of outwash and other uplands of glacial origin, with names, in Michigan [Figure] | 259
  • Map of the 16 rivers and streams in Michigan, portions of which have been designated as state Natural Rivers [Figure] | 215
  • Map of the esker regions of Michigan, and the names [Figure] | 265
  • Map of the ice margin about 11,200 years ago, during retreat of the Marquette ice, showing the rising Lakes Stanley and Chippewa, and Lake Duluth and Minong [Figure] | 185
  • Map of the ice margin about 11,600 years ago, during the Marquette glacial readvance, showing Early Lake Erie, Lake Stanley, Lake Chippewa, and Lake Minong [Figure] | 184
  • Map of the ice margin about 12,900 years ago, showing Main Lake Algonquin, Early Lake Erie, and Lake Ontonagon [Figure] | 184
  • Map of the ice margin about 13,700 years ago, showing Early Lake Eriem Huron Lake Algonquin, the Calumet phase of Lake Chicago and Glacial Lake Oshkosh in Wisconsin [Figure] | 183
  • Map of the ice margin about 14,000 years ago, showing the low lake levels associated with the Twocreekan interstadial [Figure] | 182
  • Map of the ice margin about 15,900 years ago, showing Lake Whittlesey, Lake Saginaw, the Glenwood II phase of Lake Chicago and Glacial Lake Oshkosh in Wisconsin [Figure] | 182
  • Map of the ice margin about 16,500 years, showing Lake Arkona , the Glenwood I phase of Lake Chicago and Glacial Lake Oshkosh in Wisconsin [Figure] | 180
  • Map of the ice margin about 17, 500 years ago, showing Lake Maumee I [Figure] | 178
  • Map of the ice margin about 17,100 years ago, showing Lake Maumee II, Early Lake Saginaw, and the Glenwood I phase of Lake Chicago [Figure] | 178
  • Map of the ice margin about 18,000 years ago, showing the meltwater drainage overflowing to the Wabash and Kankakee Rivers [Figure] | 176
  • Map of the ice margin about 19,000 years ago, showing to Saginaw lobe reentrant [Figure] | 176
  • Map of the major drumlin fields in Michigan [Figure] | 265
  • Map of the major iron ranges and mining districts of the Upper Peninsula [Figure] | 140
  • Map of the major soil types in Michigan, as grouped taxonomically [Figure] | 323
  • Map of the major types in Michigan, as grouped by drainage class [Figure] | 325
  • Map of the Nipissing phase highstand about 6,000 years ago [Figure] | 187
  • Map of the soil parent material types in Michigan [Figure] | 316
  • Map of the valley of the Grand River and the surrounding landscape [Figure] | 268
  • Maple | 92, 98, 99, 100, 102
  • Maple-dominated forest | 99
  • Mapped climatic data for Michigan, for the period 1971-2000 [Figure] | 300
  • Maps of Kalamazoo County show, the water table surface is smoothly undulating and generally mimics the land surface [Figure] | 225
  • Maps of selected species isochrones, for multiple time periods in Michigan's past [Figure] | 94
  • Marble | 15
  • Margin (glacial) | 254, 256-261, 263
  • Marginal aquifer | 241
  • Marine effect | 333-334
  • Marine fauna of the Ordivician Period [Figure] | 48
  • Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) | 70, 72, 73, 77
  • Marquette District or Range | 142, 147
  • Marquette moraine | 261
  • Marquette Phase | 85, 185, 186
  • Marquette Range Supergroup | 31
  • Marsh | 100
  • Marshall aquifer | 228, 232
  • Marshall Formation | 55, 245, 251
  • Marshall sandstone | 229, 231, 232, 234, 235
  • Mason esker | 265-266
  • Mass extinction | 48, 54, 56, 58
  • Mastodon habitat in the Lower Peninsula [Focus Box] | 97
  • Mastodon | 97, 107-110, 113
  • Mattawa highstands | 186
  • Maximum and minimum temperature | 300-303
  • Maximum horizontal stress | 121
  • MDNR Landowner Incentive Program (LIP) | 349-350
  • Mean climatic data for East Lansing, MI [Figure] | 302
  • Mean daily solar radiation, at Lansing [Figure] | 308
  • Mean monthly precipitation totals at Alma, MI [Figure] | 302
  • Mean positions of the polar front jet stream over the United States, by season [Figure] | 289
  • Mean winter minimum temperature, 1961-2004, at Ironwood [Figure] | 307
  • Mean, statewide temperature and precipitation data [Figure] | 307
  • Median values of temperature threshold parameters for Eau Claire [Figure] | 310
  • Medieval Warm Period (MWP) | 101, 102
  • Megaherbivores | 112-113
  • Mellen, Harvey | 142
  • Member | 17-18
  • Menominee District or Range | 142, 147
  • Menominee Drumlin Field (A6) | 648
  • Menominee Group | 31, 32, 34
  • Mercury | 218, 219
  • Mesic beech-maple forest | 99-100, 102
  • Mesic birch | 102
  • Mesic deciduous trees | 99
  • Mesic deciduous trees | 99
  • Mesic forest | 98
  • Mesic hardwood forest | 334
  • Mesic taxa | 99, 100, 102
  • Mesnard Quartzite | 32
  • Mesoscale convective system (MCS) | 295
  • Mesoscale/microscale feature | 288
  • Mesotrophic | 216-217
  • Mesozoic | 17, 22, 60, 656, 657
  • Metall Mining Company | 170
  • Metamorphic rock | 15, 20, 24, 28
  • Meteorite crater | 64
  • Methane | 128
  • Methemoglobenemia | 245
  • Methylmercury | 218
  • Michigamme Formation| 33, 245
  • Michigan Basin | 16, 22, 48, 50, 51, 51, 55, 63, 66, 128, 130, 132, 135, 136, 137, 159, 238, 249, 252, 263, 658-659
  • Michigan Basin, The [Focus Box] | 49
  • Michigan Department of Agriculture (MDA) | 245
  • Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) | 214, 217, 220, 234, 241
  • Michigan Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) | 348, 349
  • Michigan Environmental Council | 218
  • Michigan Formation | 55, 132, 234, 241, 251
  • Michigan Geological Survey | 143
  • Michigan Natural Features Inventory | 351
  • Michigan redbed sandstone, used as building material [Figure] | 61
  • Michigan subepisode | 77, 79, 81-82, 83
  • Michigan, name origin | 1
  • Michigan's major igneous rocks [Table] | 13
  • Michigan's major metamorphic rocks [Table] | 15
  • Michigan's major sedimentary rocks [Table] | 14
  • Michigan's Pleistocene vertebrate fauna [Table] | 108
  • Michigan's State Stone [Focus Box ] | 55
  • Michigan's virgin white pine timber was of exceptional quakity [Figure] | 617
  • Micro-continent | 28, 30, 37, 52
  • Microcystis | 219
  • Microthermometric analysis | 63
  • Mid-Atlantic Ridge | 116, 121, 124
  • Midcontinent Rift system | 28, 35, 150, 151
  • Middle Ordivician sea | 45
  • Midlatitude cyclones | 292
  • Mid-Michigan gravity high/anomaly | 122, 123
  • Mid-ocean ridge | 19, 42
  • Migmatitc gneiss of Archean age in an outcrop [Figure] | 30
  • Migmatite | 30
  • Mineral exploration | 11, 35
  • Minerals | 12, 35-37
  • Miner's Castle Member | 42, 44
  • Mining | 118-119
  • Minnesota [sic] mine | 162
  • Minor civil divisions | 2
  • Mislocated event | 119
  • Mississippian | 17, 40, 41, 54-56, 57, 61, 131, 132, 656, 657
  • Mitchell map of 1755 [Figure] | 4
  • Mixed conifer-northern hardwood forest | 98
  • Mixed coniferous-deciduous forest | 100, 317
  • Mixed oak forest | 99
  • Mixed pine forest | 100, 334
  • Modern analog principle | 91
  • Modern analog principle | 91
  • Modified Mercalli (MM) scale | 116
  • Modified Mercalli Scale for earthquake intensity [Table] | 117
  • Mollisol | 320, 326
  • Mollusc | 102
  • Moment magnitude | 117
  • Moose | 111
  • Morphology | 91
  • Morrice event | 119
  • Motto | 2
  • Mt. Simon Sandstone | 130
  • Muck | 327
  • Munising Formation | 42, 44, 45
  • Munising moraine | 261
  • Muskegon field | 132
  • Muskegon Oil Corporation (Muskegon Development Company) | 132


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N

  • Named Michigan Islands within the Great Lakes [Table] | 194
  • National Center for Atmospheric Research | 310
  • National Weather Service (NWS) | 304
  • Native cranberries | 335
  • Natural brine | 232
  • Natural gas | 126-137
  • Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Act (NREPA) | 214
  • Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) | 315
  • Natural Rivers Program | 214
  • Nautiloids | 48
  • Negaunee Iron Formation | 27, 32, 33
  • Neogene | 17
  • New Madrid seismic zone | 123-124
  • Newberry dune field | 284
  • Newberry moraine | 261
  • Newest immigrants to the Keweenaw often got stuck into the worst jobs [Figure] | 168
  • Niagaran Reef Trend | 130, 132, 135,136, 137
  • Niagra escarpment along the western edge of the Garden Peninsula [Figure] | 50
  • Niagra escarpment | 50, 51
  • Niagra Falls | 51
  • Niagra River | 182
  • Niagra Suture Zone (NSZ) | 34, 37
  • Nipissing phase | 187, 279
  • Nipissing transgression | 186-187
  • Nipple tooth | 107
  • Nissouri Phase | 79
  • Nitrate concentrations in groundwater samples from Michigan water wells [Figure] | 246
  • Nitrate contamination | 245
  • Nitrite | 245
  • Nodaway Point | 276, 278
  • Nomenclature and absolute time frame of the Precambrian [Figure] | 25
  • Non-arboreal plants | 96
  • Non-artesian well | 236
  • Nonesuch Formation | 155, 159
  • Nonesuch shale | 159, 169
  • Non-forest wetlands | 330
  • Nonindigenous Aquatic Nuisance Species State Management Plan | 219
  • Nonpoint source pollution | 217
  • Normal fault | 20-21, 117, 151, 155
  • North American Pollen Database | 92
  • Northern hardwood forest | 100, 101, 102
  • Northern Hardwood-Conifer Forest | 332
  • Northern Michigan Highlands | 42
  • Northern white cedar is common on calcareous, sedimentary rock outcrops [Figure] | 340
  • NRCS soil mapping effort in Michigan [Focus Box] | 327
  • Numbers of major physical and political features in Michigan [Table] | 2


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O

  • O horizon | 320, 321, 322
  • Oak [species]/forest | 92, 98, 101, 332
  • Oak forest on a coarse-textured site in the south-western Lower Peninsula [Figure] | 337
  • Oak Savanna ecosystem | 348-350
  • Oak savanna | 99, 100
  • Oak-dominated forest | 98, 99, 100, 101, 102
  • Oak-Hickory Forest | 336
  • Occurences of severe thunderstorms [Figure] | 304
  • Ocqueoc Falls | 208
  • Ohio buckeye | 332
  • Ohio, Boundary with Michigan | 3
  • Oil | 126-137
  • Oligotrophic(ation) | 201, 216-217
  • On low permeability or impermeable soils, where water collects during wet weather, various hardwood swamp forest communities are common across much of the Lower Peninsula [Figure] | 338
  • On the top (deck) of the iron ore docks at Marquette, Michigan [Figure] | 147
  • Onaway Phase | 79
  • Ontario basin | 77, 86
  • Ontario Subepisode | 77
  • Optical simulated luminescence (OSL) | 281, 284
  • Orbital cycles | 98
  • Ordivician Radiation | 48
  • Ordivician | 40, 41, 45-48, 50, 51, 52, 64, 65, 128, 130, 135, 137, 159, 656, 657
  • Ore fluids | 156-158
  • Organic soil | 319
  • Organisms factor (o) | 317
  • Orogeny | 27
  • Osteichthyes (bony fish) | 106
  • Ostiechthyes | 534
  • Ostracoderms | 48
  • Ostracodes | 106
  • Out of state earthquakes felt in Michigan [Figure] | 123
  • Outwash plain | 258, 262, 265, 268, 284, 326
  • Outwash | 258
  • Overland flow | 210, 213
  • Ownership of the Great Lakes by the eight states and the province of Ontario, Canada [Figure] | 192
  • Oxbow lake | 214


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P

  • Paleoecology | 91
  • Paleoecology | 91-93
  • Paleo-Indians | 113, 615-616
  • Paleosol | 281
  • Paleovegetation | 91-103
  • Paleozioc | 17, 22, 24, 27, 40, 45, 50, 57, 58, 60, 62, 63, 65, 123, 128, 174, 249, 656, 657
  • Paleozoic Fauna | 48, 51, 52, 56
  • Paleozoic fossils of the Michigan Basin [Figure] | 46
  • Paleozoic stratigraphic succession in Michigan | 41
  • Palimpsest | 255
  • Pangea | 58, 61
  • Parabolic dune | 279
  • Parallel Climate Model | 310
  • Parallel drainage | 268
  • Parent material factor (p) | 317
  • Parent material | 315, 317, 318-319, 326
  • Part 327 of Act 451 (NREPA) | 220
  • Partially confining material | 241
  • Passive factor | 317
  • Paternalism | 144
  • Paucity of in situ | 79, 84
  • Peat soil | 336
  • Peat | 327
  • Peatland | 100
  • Pelecypod (clam) 106
  • Peninsula | 2
  • Peninsulas and linear lakes of the northwestern lower peninsula (A9) | 649
  • Pennsylvanian coal swamp [Figure] | 56
  • Pennsylvanian | 17, 40, 41, 56-58, 60, 61, 62, 64, 65, 66, 128, 130, 656, 657
  • Penokean Orogeny/deformation/Mountains/ Highlands | 34, 37, 24, 115
  • Penultimate glaciation See Illinois glaciation
  • Percentage of land area in Michigan occupied by forests, by county [Figure] | 614
  • Perched Dune Model [Figure] | 278
  • Perched dune | 276-277, 281, 283
  • Peridotite | 13
  • Periglacial processes | 96
  • Periglacial | 82
  • Period | 17
  • Permian | 40, 41, 58, 60, 62, 66, 656
  • Peshekee Highlands and the Huron Mountains (A4) | 647
  • Petrochemicals | 128
  • Pewabic mine | 162
  • Phaneritic | 13
  • Phanerozoic | 37, 159, 160, 656
  • Phase | 72
  • Photograph of eleven of the twelve men who were entombed while working on the fourth level of the Pewabic Mine, when a room above them collapsed in 1894 [Figure] | 145
  • Photographs of lake sediment core extraction for fossil pollen and plant macrofossil analysis, using a Livingston coring device [Figure] | 93
  • Photos of banded iron formation (BIF) rock, which consists of thin, uniform layers of red hematitic chert alternating with gray bands of specularite , from Jasper Knob, Negaunee [Figure] | 141
  • Phyllite | 15
  • Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore | 42
  • Pignut hickory | 336
  • Pileus Project: Climate Science for Decision Making | 309-311
  • Pin oak | 332
  • Pine barren ecosystem | 348-350
  • Pine elfin | 348
  • Pine forest | 100, 102
  • Pine | 92, 98, 99, 101, 102
  • Pine-dominated forest | 98, 102
  • Pinnacle reef traps | 129, 132
  • Pinnacle reefs See Coral reefs
  • Pittsburg and Boston Mining Company | 162
  • Placoderms | 53
  • Plan colonization | 96
  • Planetary feature | 288
  • Planetary wave | 289
  • Planetismals | 24
  • Plankton | 128
  • Plant geography | 330-344
  • Plate boundary stress model | 122
  • Plate Tectonics | 19-22, 30-31, 33, 42, 52, 62, 115, 121, 122, 124, 130
  • Pleistocence | 22, 60, 66, 96, 106-113, 128, 159, 615, 656, 657
  • Pleistocene fauna | 106-113
  • Pleistocene glaciation | 35, 159, 160
  • Pleistocene megafauna | 97
  • Pleistocene Peccaries [Figure] | 112
  • Pliocene | 65, 70
  • Point source pollution | 217
  • Polar front | 289
  • Pollen diagram | 92
  • Pollen diagram | 92-93
  • Pollen rain | 92
  • Pollen rain | 92
  • Pollen zone | 93
  • Pollen zones | 93
  • Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) | 218, 219
  • Poorly sorted | 32
  • Poplar | 97
  • Porqupine Mountains (A2) | 646
  • Port Bruce Stadial | 69
  • Port Huron field | 131
  • Port Huron glacial advance | 181, 183
  • Port Huron ice margin | 182
  • Port Huron maximum | 181
  • Port Huron moraine and tip of the thumb area (A16) | 653
  • Port Huron moraine | 181, 183
  • Port Huron moraine | 261, 284
  • Port Talbot Phase | 77, 79
  • Portage Lake Volcanics | 151, 156, 160
  • Porter field | 135
  • Post-glacial (isostatic) rebound | 121
  • Post-glacial lakes and levels from 17,000-2000 years ago in the Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, and Erie basins [Table] |179
  • Prairie compass plant | 336
  • Prairie plants | 335
  • Prairie vole | 350
  • Prairie warler | 348
  • Prairie | 330
  • Prairie | 335-336
  • Prairie | 99, 100, 616
  • Prairie/grassland ecosystems | 350-351
  • Prarie du Chien Group | 45
  • Precambrian aged pillow basalts [Figure] | 16
  • Precambrian crustal provinces of Michigan and surrounding areas [Figure] | 28
  • Precambrian rock types and formal unit names, representative of the western Upper Peninsula [Figure] | 29
  • Precambrian rocks: Mineral resources for the future [Focus Box] | 36
  • Precambrian | 17, 24, 26, 27, 34, 36, 37, 115, 122, 130, 135, 141,150, 155, 656, 657
  • Preglacial drainage in the Great Lakes region during the late Cenozoic, prior to glaciation [Figure] | 175
  • Prehistoric | 91
  • Pre-Illinoian glaciations | 71
  • Pressure waves See Primary waves
  • Primary documents involved in Michigan's contemporary boundary locations, 1783-1973 [Table] | 3
  • Primary waves | 116
  • Primitive fish | 53
  • Principle areas of carbonate bedrock in Michigan, and the locations of major limestone and dolostone quarries [Figure] | 51
  • Principle of cross-cutting relationships See Cross-cutting relations
  • Principle of faunal succession | 17
  • Principle of included fragments | 17
  • Principle of lateral continuity | 17
  • Principle of original horizontality | 16-17
  • Principle of superposition | 16, 24, 159
  • Production of refined copper from selected native copper deposits [Table] | 156
  • Profile (soil) | 326
  • Proglacial lake | 263, 268
  • Proglacial landform | 256, 261-264
  • Proglacial sediments | 261
  • Projected changes in the median length of the growing season at Bad Axe [Figure] | 311
  • Prokaryotes | 26
  • Proportions of all days which are wet, and of wet days which follow a wet day , at Caro [Figure] | 308
  • Proterozoic | 17, 22, 24, 27-28, 31, 33-35, 37, 40, 42, 56, 123, 140, 141, 174, 657
  • Protocrust | 26
  • Pumpelly, Raphael | 143
  • Pure Oil Company | 132
  • Push moraine | 257
  • Pyrite | 63, 155
  • Pyroxenite | 13


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Q

  • Quantification | 116
  • Quartzite | 15, 32
  • Quaternary | 17, 70, 241
  • Quincy mine | 162, 168-169


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R

  • Radioactive isotpoes frequently used in radiometric dating [Table] | 18
  • Radiocarbon dating | 69, 72, 77, 82, 92, 95
  • Radiocarbon years vs. calendar years [Focus Box] | 177
  • Radiolarians | 128
  • Radiometric dates | 12, 18-19
  • Ragweed | 101
  • Raisinville and Monroe events | 119
  • Randall, A. | 143
  • Range (2007) of the Kirtland's warbler in Michigan [Figure] | 349
  • Rattlesnake-master | 336
  • Ray-finned fish | 54
  • Rayleigh waves | 116
  • Recently -burned forest site in eastern Crawford County [Figure] | 340
  • Recessional moraine | 257
  • Recharge zone | 236
  • Reconstruction of the sequences of geologic events [Figure] | 17
  • Record of the last interglacial-glacial transition in central Illinois [Focus Box] | 74-75
  • Recurrence interval | 123
  • Red Cedar River, a tributary to the Grand River, is typical of many warm water streams that freeze under winter conditions [Figure] | 215
  • Red maple | 336
  • Red oak | 334
  • Red oak | 336, 337
  • Red pine | 98
  • Redbed | 60, 61, 63, 66, 135
  • Red-headed woodpecker | 348
  • Reed City field | 132
  • Reelfoot rift | 123
  • Regional metamorphism | 15
  • Relationships between surface high and low pressure systems [Figure] | 291
  • Relative time scale | 18-19, 24
  • Relief factor (r) | 317
  • Relief | 322
  • Reptiles | 56
  • Reptilia | 106
  • Reservoir (oil and gas) | 126-127, 129, 130, 132, 135, 136
  • Resistance to the physical erosion, of the various bedrock types in the Michigan Basin [Figure] | 250
  • Reverse fault | 20-21, 116, 155
  • Richmond Group | 48
  • Richter scale | 117
  • Ridge (wave) | 288-289
  • Rift | 19, 33, 34, 35, 37, 40, 150
  • Rift-flanking basin | 155
  • Riparian vs. groundwater rights: a case study [Focus Box] | 220
  • Ripple marks | 32
  • Riverine lake | 214
  • Rivers and canals in the vicinity of Chicago, before 1848 and at present [Figure] | 199
  • Robein Silt | 82
  • Rock cycle as it relates to plate tectonics [Figure] | 22
  • Rock cycle | 20, 22
  • Rocky Mountains | 60
  • Roger's City Formation | 52
  • Roosevelt, Franklin D. | 169
  • Round fourty | 617
  • Roxana Silt | 82
  • Rubicon | 324


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S

  • Saginaw aquifer | 228
  • Saginaw dune field | 284
  • Saginaw field | 131, 132
  • Saginaw Formation | 56, 57, 130, 231, 232, 234, 245
  • Saginaw lobe drift | 319
  • Saginaw lobe | 175, 178, 182, 249, 254, 258, 261, 263, 265
  • Saginaw Lowland | 179, 180, 181, 268, 284
  • Saginaw oil field | 232
  • Salina Group | 51, 132
  • Saline water | 232
  • San Andres fault | 19, 116
  • Sand Dune Protection and Management Act | 280
  • Sand dunes | 274-284, 326
  • Sandstone | 14, 31, 42, 45, 60, 64, 66, 130, 152, 153, 155, 159, 160, 161, 228, 229, 249, 251, 252, 318
  • Sandy High Plains | 249, 662
  • Sandy soil (Entisol) that is about 10,000 years old, from western Baraga County [Figure] | 318
  • Sandy soil | 102, 318, 319, 334
  • Sangamon Geosol | 72
  • Sangamon interglaciation (episode) | 70, 72-73, 77, 86
  • Satellite image of a major lake effect outbreak [Figure] | 297
  • Saturated zone | 223
  • Sauk megasequence | 130
  • Savanna Grassland | 330, 336
  • Savanna | 336, 616
  • Scarlet oak | 336
  • Schematic illustration (not to scale) of pollen and macrofossil deposition in and around a typical lake basin [Figure] | 92
  • Schist | 15
  • School districts | 2
  • Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe | 161
  • Scott's moose | 111
  • Seafloor spreading zone | 42
  • Seal and trap (rock) | 126, 129
  • Seasonal fluctuations in Great Lakes' water levels [Figure] | 197
  • Secondary dune | 279
  • Secondary waves | 116, 120
  • Second-growth, mixed aspen-birch-balsam fir stand in Mackinac County [Figure] | 342
  • Section 319 Nonpoint Source Management program | 218
  • Sedges | 96
  • Sedimentary megasequence | 130
  • Sedimentary rocks | 13, 20, 24, 31, 34, 35, 40, 46, 58, 60, 63, 66, 130, 150, 153, 157
  • Seen here is an open area with many isolated, old white pine stumps, south of Kingston Lake in Alger County [Figure] | 331
  • Seiches | 195
  • Seismic events/activity | 115, 117, 118-119, 124
  • Seismic hazard assessment | 124
  • Seismic moment | 117
  • Seismic waves | 115
  • Seismicity map of Michigan, showing all known and reported events [ Figure] | 118
  • Seismogram | 116, 120
  • Seismometer | 116, 117
  • Serpentinite | 13
  • Severe thunderstorms and tornadoes | 304-305
  • Severe weather, storms, and hazards | 304-306
  • Severe winter weather | 305
  • Shadow zone | 120
  • Shagbark hickory | 336
  • Shale | 14, 32, 48, 53, 54, 60, 66, 129, 130, 132, 152, 155, 159, 160, 230, 249, 251, 252
  • Shear plane | 261
  • Shear waves or shock waves See Secondary waves
  • Shelby Phase | 83
  • Sherman Hill | 159
  • Shield | 30
  • Shock metamorphism | 33
  • Shoreline | 1
  • Shortwave trough | 291
  • Shortwave | 290-292
  • Siamo Slate | 32
  • Siliceous ooze | 32
  • Siltation | 218
  • Siltstone | 48, 130, 152, 155, 159, 160
  • Silurian paleogeography [Figure] | 45
  • Silurian rock salt, Detroit Salt Company mine [Figure] | 51
  • Silurian | 40, 41, 48, 50-52, 55, 64, 132, 135, 137, 656, 657
  • Sinkhole | 238, 240
  • Sinkhole | 65, 66, 70
  • Slate of the Michigamme Formation of the Baraga Group [Figure] | 33
  • Slate | 15, 32, 33
  • Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore | 276, 278
  • Slippery elm | 337
  • Small foredune near Charlevoix, Michigan [Figure] | 275
  • Small mammals | 107
  • Small prairie relic near Middleville, in Barry County [Figure] | 336
  • Snowbed willow | 96
  • Snowbelt | 199-200
  • Snowstorm | 305
  • Soil development/distribution | 317-322
  • Soil property (S) | 317
  • Soil water in the unsaturated zone compared to groundwater in the saturated zone [Figure] | 225
  • Soil | 315-328, 615
  • Soilscape | 315-328
  • Solar compass | 139
  • Solar insolation | 299, 302
  • Solution mining | 232-233
  • Solution salt mining | 126
  • Some of Michigan's Pleistocene invertebrates [Figure] | 106
  • Soo locks | 142
  • Source rock | 126, 128
  • Southern part of Michigan, illustrating the various lines associated with boundary disputes in this area [Figure] | 5
  • Specialist species | 347
  • Speculartie | 141, 142, 143
  • Sphagnum peat-dominated bog in the western Upper Peninsula [Figure] | 209
  • Spherules | 33
  • Spiny acanthosidiand | 53
  • Spodosol | 320, 321, 322-324, 326
  • Spreading center | 19, 30
  • Spruce vegetation/phase | 96-99
  • Spruce | 615, 616
  • Spruce-pine forest | 98
  • Spruce-sedge parkland | 96, 102
  • St. Joseph event | 120
  • St. Lawrence rift system | 123
  • St. Lawrence Seaway | 193, 202
  • St. Lawrence-New Madrid rift system | 122, 123, 124
  • St. Peter Formation | 45
  • St. Peter Sandstone | 130 ,136, 137
  • Stacked and smoothed record of delta Oxygen 18 in deep, seafloor cores, which corresponds with both global ice volume fluctuation s and global climate fluctuations [Figure] | 71
  • Stadials | 69
  • Stage | 69
  • Stagnant zone | 261
  • Standard Oil Company of Indiana (AMOCO) | 132
  • Standard Oil Company of Ohio (SOHIO) | 132
  • State factor | 317
  • "State insect" | 326
  • Statehood Act | 3
  • Step | 51
  • Storm surge | 195
  • Stormwater | 217
  • Stratification | 13
  • Stratified, sandy, and gravelly, glacial outwash sediments from a borrow pit near Waters [Figure] | 262
  • Stratigraphic column | 17, 657
  • Stratigraphic column, showing the ages and names of Keweenawan rocks in the western Upper Peninsula [Figure] | 154
  • Stratocumulus | 296
  • Stream flow reversal | 268
  • Strike-slip fault | 116, 120
  • Stromatolites | 26-27, 32, 140, 141, 153
  • Stromatolitic Kona Dolomite, Marquette, MI [Figure] | 27
  • Strong midlatitude cyclone: The "Edmund Fitzgerald storm" [Focus Box] | 292-293
  • Subaerial eruption | 151
  • Subaerial lava flow | 153, 156
  • Subduction zone | 121
  • Subduction | 19, 28, 30, 31, 33, 34, 46, 121
  • Subepisode | 72, 77
  • Subglacial drift | 256
  • Subglacial landform | 256, 264-266
  • Subsidence | 34, 42, 50, 51
  • Substage | 69, 77
  • Successional , nearly even-aged, stand of white birch in northwestern Lower Michigan [Figure] | 340
  • Successive stages in the formation of coal [Figure] | 62
  • Sugar Loaf, Mackinac Island landmark | 15
  • Sugar maple | 334, 337, 615
  • Sumatra earthquake | 115
  • Summary of pollen data from Kitchner Lake, Menominee County [Figure] | 96
  • Summary of pollen data from Wintergreen Lake, Kalamazoo County [Figure] | 94
  • Summary of the major vegetation changes in Michigan from 17,000 years ago to present [Figure] | 95
  • Summary of the trophic status of Michigan's public access lakes [Figure] | 217
  • Sun Oil Company | 131-132
  • Super-continent | 57
  • Supergene minerals | 159
  • Superglacial drift | 256
  • Supergroup | 18, 31, 32
  • Superior basin | 86
  • Superior Bedrock Uplands | 249, 251
  • Superior Bedrock Uplands | 30, 318, 663
  • Surface water | 220
  • Surface wave magnitude | 117
  • Surface waves | 116, 119
  • Surficial geology maps | 16, 664, 665
  • Swamp hardwood forest | 99, 101
  • Swamp white oak | 332
  • Sylvania Formation | 52
  • Sylvite | 51
  • Synoptic-scale feature | 288, 290-291


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T

  • Taconic Mountains | 46
  • Tahquamenon Falls | 208
  • Tallgrass prairie | 317
  • Tamarack | 615, 616
  • Taxa | 91, 93
  • Taxa | 91
  • Taylor, Frank | 266
  • Tecktites | 33
  • Tectonic plates | 19
  • Tectonics See Plate tectonics
  • Temperature trends | 306-307
  • Tension Zone | 100, 334, 336
  • Terminal moraine | 257
  • Terrace | 267
  • Terrestrial gae and non-game fauna found in Michigan [Table] | 347
  • Terrestrial game and non-game fauna found in dune/shoreline ecosystems [Table] | 357
  • Terrestrial game and non-game fauna found in forest ecosystems [Table] | 352
  • Terrestrial game and non-game fauna found in inland lakes and wetland ecosystems [Table] | 355
  • Terrestrial game and non-game fauna found in oak savanna and pine barren ecosystems [Table] | 349
  • Terrestrial game and non-game fauna found in prairie/grassland ecosystems [Table] | 350
  • Terrestrial game and non-game fauna found in urban ecosystems [Table] | 359
  • Terrestrial game and non-game fauna | 346-359
  • Tertiary continental biota | 65
  • Tetrapod | 57
  • Theoretical ice marginal setup at the start of the development of the SE Michigan interlobate zone [Figure] | 256
  • Thermal maturity | 62, 66
  • Thick outwash systems in a portion of the southeastern Lower Peninsula [Figure] | 244
  • Thickness of glacial deposits in Michigan [Figure] | 255
  • Thin sections | 144
  • Thirteen-lined ground squirrel | 350
  • This flowing artesian well is located in a roadside park along US Hwy 2, just west of the Norway, in Dickinson County [Figure] | 237
  • This photo shows an acidic bog in Mackinac County, MI [Figure] | 335
  • Thrust fault See Reverse fault
  • Tilden Mine | 147
  • Tilden open pit iron mine near Negaunee, in Marquette County [Figure] | 147
  • Tiles | 263
  • Till plains | 264
  • Till | 256-257
  • Tillite | 31
  • Time factor (t) | 317
  • Timeline of entry mechanisms for nonindigenous aquatic species introduced to the Great Lakes, from 1810 to 1999 [Figure] | 202
  • Tippecanoe megasequence | 133
  • Toledo Strip | 5-7
  • Top 20 inland lakes in Michigan, by surface area [Table] | 207
  • Topographic map of a section of the Mason esker, near Holt [Figure] | 266
  • Topographic maps showing strandlines and/or beach ridges of some former glacial lakes in Michigan [Figure] | 176
  • Topography | 322
  • Torch Lake | 206
  • Total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) | 219
  • Transform margin | 19
  • Transgressive dunes | 275, 276
  • Translocation processes | 322
  • Transpressional earthquake | 116
  • Transtensional earthquake | 116
  • Traverse Group | 52
  • Traverse Limestone | 130, 131, 132, 136, 137, 251, 252
  • Treaty of Ghent | 3
  • Treaty of La Pointe | 139
  • Treaty of Paris | 3
  • Trempealeau ahd Prarie du Chien | 130
  • Trenton fields | 131
  • Trenton Formation | 131, 132, 135, 137
  • Trenton Formation | 46
  • Triassic | 66
  • Trilobite | 44, 48, 51
  • Trimountain mine | 166
  • Trough (wave) | 288-289
  • Tuliptree | 332
  • Tundra-like vegetation | 96
  • Tunnel channel lake | 214
  • Tunnel valley | 253-254
  • Tunnel valleys in NW Lower Michigan occur offshore, in and around Grand Traverse Bay [Figure] | 253
  • Turbidite | 32
  • Turfgrass farm | 327
  • Two Creeks Forset bed | 183
  • Two Creeks low phase | 182
  • Two mines in the district, the Tamarack (shown here) and Calumet and Hecla, had weak hanging walls [Figure] | 166
  • Two Rivers Phase | 182, 183, 185
  • Two Rivers Phase | 84
  • Types and characteristics of karst features in Michigan and parts of Wisconsin [Figure] | 240
  • Types of seismic waves [Figure] | 116
  • Typical example of low perched dunes along Lake Michigan [Figure] | 279
  • Typical oak savanna, which has both characteristics of Michigan forests an grasslands [Figure] | 348
  • Typical till plain, or ground moraine, in southern Michigan [Figure] | 264
  • Tyrrell Sea | 86


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U

  • Ubly channel | 181
  • Ultramafic igneous rock | 26
  • Unconfined aquifer | 236, 245
  • Unconformity | 31, 32, 45, 48, 56, 130
  • Underfit stream valley | 268
  • Union of Concerned Scientists/Ecological Society of America (UCS/ESA) | 309, 310
  • United Kingdom Hadley Center Model (HadCM2) | 310
  • Universal Oil Products | 170
  • Upper Tahquamenon Falls, in Luce County [Figure] | 208
  • US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) | 232, 234, 235, 245
  • US Fish and WIldlife Service (USFWS) | 348
  • US Forest Service | 348
  • US Geological Survey | 144
  • US-Canada Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement | 214


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V

  • Vaccinium | 334
  • Valparaiso moraine | 182
  • Van Buren State Park | 281, 283
  • Van Hise, Charles | 144
  • Vegetation diagram illustrating the distribution of forest types in northern lower Michigan [Figure] | 343
  • Vegetation | 320-322
  • Vertebrates | 54, 65, 106, 107
  • Vesper sparrow | 350
  • Volcanic arc | 28, 30, 31, 34, 37
  • Volcanic material | 151
  • Volcanic rock | 31, 35, 150, 151, 156
  • Vug | 51, 63


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W

  • Walnut | 98, 99
  • Wapiti (elk) | 111
  • Water table aquifer | 227
  • Water table | 223-224, 236
  • Water Use Reporting Program | 220
  • Water Wonderland, nickname | 206, 245
  • Water, water everywhere-flowing well problems [Focus Box] | 237
  • Waterfalls of the Upper Peninsula and the location of the Cambro-Ordivician Escarpment | 47
  • Waterfalls | 45, 47
  • Watershed | 210, 213, 217, 219
  • Watersmeet moraine | 261
  • Wave beveling | 263
  • Waves and airflow in the midlatitude westerlies [Figure] | 288
  • Weather | 288-311
  • Weathering | 14
  • Webster-Ashburton Treaty of 1842 | 4
  • Well preserved Sangamon and Farmdale Geosols in western and northern Illinois [Focus Box] | 76
  • West Branch moraine | 261
  • Western Federation of Miners (WFM) | 168
  • Wetland | 334-335
  • Wet-mesic site | 338
  • Wewe Slate | 32
  • White ash | 337
  • White cedar | 615
  • White oak | 336
  • White Pine fault | 159
  • White Pine mine | 155, 159, 169-170
  • White pine occurred in nearly pure stands or was mixed with red pine or hardwoods, on sandy soils [Figure] | 339
  • White pine | 98, 100, 334, 616
  • White spruce | 96, 332
  • Whitefish fan | 187
  • White-tailed deer in Michigan [Focus Box] | 347
  • White-tailed deer | 347
  • Who pulled the plug on Rainy Lake [Focus Box] | 238-239
  • Why didn't it snow? [Focus Box] | 294-295
  • Wild lupine | 350
  • William Austin Burt, surveyor [Figure] | 140
  • Willow | 96
  • Willowvale Phase | 77
  • Wind set-up on the Great Lakes [Figure] | 195
  • Wind set-up | 195
  • Wind tide | 195
  • Wind-pollinated plants | 92
  • Wind-pollinated plants | 92
  • Winter interrupted transport over the Great Lakes, but sometimes made travel easier on the Keweenaw itself [Figure] | 162
  • Winter of 1811-1812 | 123
  • Wintergreen Lake | 101
  • Wintergreen Lake | 96, 97
  • Wisconsin Episode | 77, 79, 81-85
  • Wisconsin glaciation | 69, 70, 86, 174
  • Wisconsin Highlands | 45
  • Wisconsin, boundary with Michigan | 7
  • Wolves in Michigan [Focus Box] | 354
  • Woodland Muskox | 111
  • Woodland Muskoxen [Figure] | 112
  • Woolly mammoth | 109, 110
  • World map showing tectonic plate boundaries [Figure] | 19
  • Wormwood | 96


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X


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Y

  • Yellow birch | 100, 334
  • Yellow water lily and water shield plants dominate eutrophic Duck Lake [Figure] | 216
  • Young, oak-dominated forest on the sandy, well drained soils of Crawford County [figure] | 339


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Z

  • Zebra mussel | 202-203, 218-219
  • Zone of weakness | 122


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#

  • 1886 Charleston, SC event | 123
  • 1936 Timiskaming, Canada event | 123
  • 1909 northeastern, IL earthquake | 123
  • 1860 photo from an historic open-pit mining operation, the Jackson Mine, pit No. 1 [Figure] | 142
  • 1894 view of the Chapin Mine's D shaft complex in Iron Mountain, looking east [Figure] | 145


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